The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by John P. Rafferty, Editor. Scientists Explain Geology of Haiti Earthquake Science . How do we study faults? In Utah, movement along faults is mostly vertical; mountain blocks (for example, the Wasatch Range) move up relative to the downward movement of … It forms the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, and its motion is right-lateral strike-slip (horizontal). Multiple Choice Questions for Earthquakes - Chapter 16 Each chapter will include a few questions designed to test your knowledge of material covered in the chapter and in the Internet-based resources. Slip is relative, because there is usually no way to know whether both sides moved or only one. It is still storing energy for some future earthquake. The movement of these blocks of crust is called a 'fault'. Figure 11. It is then released catastrophically in one or more earthquakes. Sudden motions along faults cause rocks to break and move suddenly. The last significant earthquake on the Southern California stretch of the San Andreas fault was in 1857, and there has not been a rupture of the fault along its southern end from San Bernardino to the Salton Sea since 1690. D.) Fault forms when there is sudden shaking of the ground rock masses that suddenly shift in position. The energy released is an earthquake. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions affect people all over the world. The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly 1,200 kilometers (750 mi) through California. A new theory may solve the mystery of why the New Madrid fault, which lies in the middle of the continent and not along a tectonic plate boundary, produces large earthquakes such as … This movement may occur rapidly, in the form of an earthquake - or may occur slowly, in the form of creep. Divergent boundaries have some, but not tons of vertical motion. The fault surface can be horizontal or vertical or some arbitrary angle in between. The fault … A fault plane is the plane that represents the fracture surface of a fault. Convergent boundaries are the big culprits. … Most movement occurs along narrow zones between plates where the results of plate-tectonic forces are most evident. Friction is eventually overcome and the plates slip past in a sudden movement. Attach the rubber band to the paper clip. The amount of damage increases as magnitude decreases. Here’s all you need to know about the slip-strike earthquake: Earthquakes cause a fracture in the upper-most layer of the earth called the crust. Most seismic activity occurs at three types of plate boundaries—divergent, convergent, and transform. Movement of the two surfaces of rock against each other causes friction. The shockwaves created produce an earthquake . B.) Faults allow the blocks to move relative to each other. Place the boxes side by side. Earthquakes are caused by movement over an area of the plate interface called the seismogenic zone. Slip is the distance rocks move along a fault. where rigidity is the strength of the rock along the fault, area is the area of the fault that slipped, and slip is the distance the fault moved. The movement along a fault may be rotational, with the offset blocks rotating relative to one another. They are caused by the movement of tectonic plates. Shoneitszeliapink. Explain why not all movements along faults produce earthquakes. Put a toy house on the box with the rubber band. A step in the fracture plane builds local stress and slows the movement. 9. This action builds up stress at the points where the rocks are stuck. When an earthquake occurs on one of these faults, the rock on one side of the fault slips with respect to the other. Any change in the amount of friction along the fault will cause the fault movement to be irregular. 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