2. Accessed July 17, 2019 at, The Joint Commission. Facts About the Official “Do Not Use” List of Abbreviations. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA encourages all healthcare providers, patients and consumers to report medication errors to the FDA Medwatch Program so that the FDA can be made aware of potential problems and provide effective interventions that will minimize further errors. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/767492/all/Medical_Abbreviations, https://www.jointcommission.org/resources/news-and-multimedia/fact-sheets/, https://www.fda.gov/safety/medwatch-fda-safety-information-and-adverse-event-reporting-program, https://www.drugs.com/fda-consumer/fda-and-ismp-work-to-prevent-medication-errors-213.html, https://www.fda.gov/animal-veterinary/resources-you/microgram-prevention-worth-milligram-cure-preventing-medication-errors-animals, https://www.jointcommission.org/-/media/tjc/documents/resources/patient-safety-topics/do_not_use_list_6_28_19.pdf, Better to spell out drug name; can be misinterpreted as five tablets of aspirin per FDA, abdominal aortic aneurysm (called a "triple-A"), Can be misinterpreted as 'apply to affected area', Can be misinterpreted as 'abdominal aortic aneurysm', Caution not to confuse with AD (meaning right ear), Better to spell out drug name "acetaminophen", Better to spell drug name out; can be misinterpreted as azathioprine per FDA, In U.S., 'hs' or 'HS' is more commonly used for bedtime, Do not confuse with "cancer of the prostate", Better to spell drug name out; can be misinterpreted as chlorpromazine per FDA, Multiple possible meanings; spell out instead of using "D/C", 5% dextrose and normal saline solution (0.9% NaCl), 5% dextrose and half normal saline solution (0.45% NaCl), Better to spell out vaccine name; can be misinterpreted as Demerol-Phenergan-Thorazine per FDA, dextrose in water, diabetes mellitus or distilled water, Multiple possible meanings; spell out instead of using "DW", Apothecary measurement (obsolete and may be misinterpreted as gram; do not use), Can be confused with GTT for glucose tolerance test, Better to spell out drug name; can be misinterpreted as hydrochlorothiazide per FDA, Better to spell out drug name; can be misinterpreted as hydrocortisone per FDA, better to spell out; do not mistake for "bedtime", Multiple possible meanings; spell out word instead of using "ID", Mistaken as IV (intravenous) or 10 (ten); Instead spell out "units" per Joint Commission's "Do Not Use" List of Abbreviations, Could be confused with 'intravenous pyelogram', Can be misinterpreted to mean "mg" or milligram, better to spell out 'microgram', May be confused with "MSO4" (morphine sulfate), spell out "magnesium sulfate" - Joint Commission's "Do Not Use" List of Abbreviations, Can mean either morphine sulfate or magnesium sulfate, spell out drug name - Joint Commission's "Do Not Use" List of Abbreviations, May be confused with "MgSO4"; instead spell out "morphine sulfate" - Joint Commission's "Do Not Use" List of Abbreviations, Preferred by AMA to spell out "nothing by mouth", Can also mean "overdose" or "once daily"; better to spell out, route of administration, ophthalmic abbreviations, Preferred in the UK; Can also mean "overdose" or "right eye"; better to spell out, AMA prefers to spell out "by mouth" or "orally"; can be mistaken as "os" meaning left eye per FDA, AMA prefers to spell out "by mouth" or "orally", Mistaken as q.i.d; Instead write "daily" or "every day" per Joint Commission's "Do Not Use" List of Abbreviations, Can be confused with "qh" meaning every hour; better to spell out, Not commonly used in U.S.; 'hs' more common for bedtime, Can be mistaken as qd (daily) or qid (four times daily); Instead spell out "every other day" per Joint Commission's "Do Not Use" List of Abbreviations, Used ONLY in Veterinary medicine to mean "once daily". This route is often used to give estrogen to women during menopause to relieve vaginal symptoms such as … Pressure on the nozzle allows a fine jet of solution to emerge with great force. However, discrepancies between structured and free-text fields in electronic prescriptions are common and can lead to medical errors and possible patient harm. A Microgram of Prevention is Worth a Milligram of Cure: Preventing Medication Errors in Animals. Medicines may also be administered intravaginally as an alternative to oral route in the case of nausea or other digestive problems. Drug names may often be abbreviated, too. These routes are called as routes of medication administration. Reduced cost impact on the healthcare system. Both handheld and measured dose inhalers are standard medical technology that both staff and in-home patients are already familiar with, making it a low-barrier and low-cost impact on the healthcare system. For example, complicated treatment regimens, like cancer treatment protocols or combination HIV regimens, may be written with drug name abbreviations. Sub-lingual route. intracerebral (into the cerebrum) administration by direct injection into the brain. Other Routes Inhalation: This route is typically used for drugs that are gaseous, or for medications that can be given in aerosol, such Limited data have been published on the pharmacokinetics of salmeterol. The rectum is relatively underused in some societies as a route for safe administration of medicines, arguably due to the intimacy of the site compared with more socially accepted and visible routes, such as oral or topical administration, or injection. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Some drugs may be administered vaginally to women as a solution, tablet, cream, gel, suppository, or ring. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. As an example, a prescription for “furosemide 40 mg Q.D.” (40 mg daily) was misinterpreted as “QID” (40 mg four times a day), leading to a fatal medical error. Healthcare agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), The Joint Commisssion, and the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) have made it a priority to communicate information about confusing abbreviations and medical shorthands. The full dosage regimen includes the dose, frequency, duration, and route of administration of the drug to be administered. ORAL Disadvantages cont. Administration of substances to laboratory animals requires careful consideration and planning to optimize delivery of the agent to the animal while minimizing potential adverse experiences from the procedure. 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